Jizanpeptins A–E (1–5) are micropeptin depsipeptides isolated from a Red Sea specimen of a Symploca sp. cyanobacterium. The planar structures of the jizanpeptins were established using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and contain 3-amino-6-hydroxy-2-piperidone (Ahp) as one of eight residues in a typical micropeptin motif, as well as a side chain terminal glyceric acid sulfate moiety. The absolute configurations of the jizanpeptins were assigned using a combination of Marfey’s methodology and chiral-phase HPLC analysis of hydrolysis products compared to commercial and synthesized standards. Jizanpeptins A–E showed specific inhibition of the serine protease trypsin (IC50 = 72 nM to 1 μM) compared to chymotrypsin (IC50 = 1.4 to >10 μM) in vitro and were not overtly cytotoxic to HeLa cervical or NCI-H460 lung cancer cell lines at micromolar concentrations.